1. To foster acquisition of knowledge and understanding of terms, concepts, facts, processes, techniques and principles relating to the subject of Chemistry.
2. To develop the ability to apply the knowledge of contents and principles of Chemistry in new or unfamiliar situations.
3. To develop skills in proper handling of apparatus and chemicals.
4. To develop an ability to appreciate achievements in the field of Chemistry and its role in nature and society.
5. To develop an interest in activities involving usage of the knowledge of Chemistry.
6. To develop a scientific attitude through the study of Physical Sciences.
7. To acquaint students with the emerging frontiers and interdisciplinary aspects of the subject.
8. To develop skills relevant to the discipline.
9. To apprise students with interface of Chemistry with other disciplines of Science, such as, Physics, Biology, Geology, Engineering, etc.
There will be two papers in the subject.
Paper I: Theory- 3 hours ... 70 marks
Paper II: Practical - 3 hours ...20 marks
Project Work … 7 marks
Practical File … 3 marks
PAPER I -THEORY - 70 Marks
There will be one paper of 3 hours duration divided into 2 parts.
Part I (20 marks) will consist of compulsory short answer questions, testing knowledge, application and skills relating to elementary/fundamental aspects of
the entire syllabus.
Part II (50 marks) will be divided into 3 Sections, A, B and C. Candidates are required to answer two out of three questions from Section A (each carrying
10 marks), two out of three questions from Section B (each carrying 5 marks) and two out of three questions from Section C (each carrying 10 marks).
Therefore, a total of six questions are to be answered in Part II.
1. Atoms and Molecules
(i) The concept of atoms having fixed properties in explaining the laws of chemical combination.
(ii) Atomic and isotopic masses.
(iii) Chemical equivalents, volumetric calculations in terms of normality. C = 12.00 should be taken as a standard for expressing atomic masses.
(iv) Relative molecular mass and mole. The following methods may be considered for the determination of relative molecular masses for the gases: the molar volume method; Victor Meyer's method (experimental details not required).
2. Atomic Structure
(i) Electrons, Protons and Neutrons as fundamental particles, their charges and masses.
(ii) Rutherford's nuclear model based on the scattering experiment.
(iii) Bohr's atomic model.
(iv) Atomic structure: wave mechanical model- a simple mathematical treatment. Quantum numbers; shape, size and orientation of s and p orbitals only. Hund's rule of maximum multiplicity. Pauli's exclusion principle, Aufbau principle, electronic configuration of elements in terms of s, p, d, f subshells.
3. Periodic Table
(i) Atomic number (Proton number) as the basis for classification of the elements in the Periodic Table. IUPAC nomenclature for elements with
(ii) Extra nuclear structure as the basis of periodicity. Some idea of the following: ionisation enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, atomic radius, atomic volume,
electronegativity, etc must be given. The periodicity of electronic structure leading to the periodicity of elements e.g the relative ease of ionisation of elements.
(iii) Periodicity of elements with reference to s, p, d and f block elements.
4. Chemical Bonding
(i) Electrovalent or ionic bond e.g formation of NaCl, Li2O, MgO, CaO, MgF2, and Na2 S.
(ii) Factors influencing the formation of ionic bond, e.g electron gain enthalpy, ionisation enthalpy, lattice energy and electronegativity.
(iii) The relation between the ionic bonding and Periodic Table.
(iv) Variable electrovalency and its causes.
(i) Covalent bond, e.g. formation of ammonia, nitrogen, ethene, ethyne, and carbon dioxide. Resonance.
(ii) Variable valency: chlorine exhibits the valency of 1,3,5 & 7 respectively.
(iii) Deviation from Octet rule and Fajan's rules.
5. The Gaseous State
(i) The gas laws, kinetic theory treated qualitatively.
(ii) PV = nRT or PV= (w/M)RT and the application of this equation of state.
(iii) Non ideal behaviour of gases and Van der Waals' equation.
(iv) Dalton's law, the Avogadro constant, the mole, Graham's law of diffusion, simple numerical problems on the above.
6. Colloidal Solutions
Preparation and properties of colloids, both lyophilic and lyophobic colloids. Precipitation as evidence that the colloidal particles are charged.
Idea of gold number is required, but application of gold number is not required. The importance of large surface area in adsorption should also be
7. Chemical Kinetics
(i) Qualitative treatment of the dependence of reaction rates on: concentration of the reactants, size of the particles, temperature and presence
of a catalyst. Catalyst - structure: enzymes and zeolites.
(ii) The concept of energy barrier (it is suggested that some experiments may be devised which may deal with the above mentioned factors).
8. Chemical Equilibria
(i) Reversible reactions and dynamic equilibrium. The concept of equilibrium constant in terms of concentration or partial pressure to indicate the
composition of the equilibrium mixture. The following are the examples: the dissociation of dinitrogen tetroxide, hydrolysis of simple esters, the Contact Process for the manufacture of sulphuric acid, the synthesis of ammonia.
(ii) Le Chatelier's Principle and its applications to chemical equilibria.
9. Study of Representative Elements: Group 1, 2, 13, 14, 15 - The following should be included:
a) Occurrence, (b) Physical State, (c) Electronic Configuration, (d) Atomic and Ionic radii, (e)Common oxidation state, (f) Electropositive / Electronegative character, (g) Ionisation enthalpy, (h) Reducing/oxidising nature, (i) Distinctive behaviour of first member of each group (namely Lithium, Beryllium,
Boron, Carbon, Nitrogen),(j) Nature of oxides, hydroxides, hydrides, carbonates, nitrates, chlorides, sulphates, wherever applicable.
10. Preparation, properties and uses of Compounds of Groups 1, 2, 13, 14, 15.
Only brief qualitative treatment is required for preparation. Main emphasis must be given to the chemistry of preparation, chemical properties and
uses of the given compounds. Biological importance of magnesium, sodium, calcium and potassium.
Group 1: Sodium chloride, Sodium hydroxide, Sodium carbonate, Sodium bicarbonate, Sodium thiosulphate; Group 2: Magnesium chloride hexahydrate, Calcium oxide, Plaster of Paris; Group 13: Borax, Borax Bead Test, Alums; Group 14: Carbon monoxide, Carbon dioxide, Silicon dioxide, Silicon carbide, Silicones;
Group 15: Oxides of nitrogen, Phosphorus trichloride, Phosphorus pentachloride, Oxoacids of phosphorus.
11. Redox Reactions
(Note: Aliphatic compounds containing upto 5 carbon atoms to be taught)
12. Introduction to Organic Chemistry
(i) The unique nature of carbon atom and catenation.
(ii) Classification of organic compounds and homologous series.
(iii) Detection of carbon, hydrogen, sulphur, nitrogen and halogen.
(iv) Estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogens, sulphur and phosphorous.
13. Types of Chemical Reactions and their Mechanisms
(i) Substitution, addition and elimination reactions.
(ii) Homolytic and heterolytic fission.
(iii) Electrophiles and nucleophiles.
(iv) Inductive, mesomeric and electromeric effects.
(v) Free radicals and polar mechanisms (in terms of fission of the bonds and formation of the new bonds) including SN1, SN2, E1 and E2
mechanisms. (SN1and SN2 , E1 and E2 mechanisms are to be taught at this point).
(vi) Organometallic compounds.
14. Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
(i) Alkanes: General methods of preparation, Properties of alkanes.
(ii) Alkenes: general methods of preparation and properties of alkenes.
(iii) Alkynes: methods of preparation (including manufacture), properties and uses of ethyne.
(iv) Benzene: Coal tar as an important source of aromatic compounds; preparation of benzene from sodium benzoate, properties and uses of benzene; resonance model of benzene; directive influence of substituents in the benzene ring.
15. Alkyl and Aryl Halides
(i) The nomenclature of aliphatic compounds
containing halogen atom.
(ii) Preparation, properties, uses of haloalkanes.
(iii) Preparation, properties, and uses of the following: ethyl bromide, chloroform, iodoform, haloform reaction.
16. Applications of Chemicals
(i) In medicine: antipyretics, analgesics, tranquilisers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, anti-fertility drugs, antihistamines, antibiotics, antacids.
(ii) Industry: advanced materials: carbon fibres, micro alloys. Detergents: classification, some important examples.
(iii) Space: rockets propellants- characteristics, chemicals used.
(iv) Food processing: preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, antioxidants and edible colours.
PRACTICAL WORK- 20 Marks
1. Measurement of the rate of reaction based on the size of the particle, concentration of reactants, temperature and presence of catalyst, e.g. the
study of the rate of dissolving of magnesium or zinc in dilute sulphuric or hydrochloric acid.
2. Qualitative analysis; identification of the following:
Cations: NH4 +, Ag+, Pb2+, Cu2+, Al3+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Zn2+, Ca2+, Mg2+
Anions: CO32-, NO2- , S2-, SO32-, SO42-, NO3- , CH3COO-, Cl-, Br-, I-.
Formal analytical procedure required.
3. Titration: acid-base titration involving molarity.
4. Construction of Voltaic cell and Daniel cell and measuring their emf.
PROJECT WORK AND PRACTICAL FILE - 10 Marks
Project Work - 7 Marks
The candidate is to creatively execute one project/assignment on a selected topic of Chemistry. Teachers may assign or students may choose any one
project of their choice.
Practical File - 3 Marks
Teachers are required to assess students on the basis of the Chemistry Practical file maintained by them during the academic year.